The 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo, a Bosnian student, Gavrilo Princip, killed the heir to the Austrian throne, the archduke Franz Ferdinand with two firearms. The anarchist attack set in motion a chain of reactions and countermeasures that plunged the whole of Europe into a conflict of unprecedented proportions. Italy entered the war the following year in May, when it had already begun for ten months, and sided with France, Great Britain, Russia against Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Despite the introduction of new weapons, including the automatic machine gun, and the development of relatively new sectors, such as aeronautics and radio, none of the countries had developed military strategies other than those that had inspired the great conflicts of the nineteenth century: all the weapons of war were based on life expectancy calculated by a few weeks, at most a few months. Soon, however, especially on the Western front (between France, Belgium and Germany) and Italian, the conflict turned into a war of attrition, with practically immobile sides. The real evidence was the trench, the simplest and most primitive of defensive fortifications. Like almost all the Italian regions, the Castel del Rio lever and the Upper Santerno Valley were also involved in the conflict: over 170 boys of which 37 fell. Inside the museum their names and their glorious images. The Sanctuary of the Virgin Mary, next to Palazzo Alidosi, bears a marble plaque with their names. For Italy the most difficult year was the 1917. Between May and September General Cadorna ordered a series of new attacks against the river Isonzo, similar to those already unleashed in the 1915. The results were modest and the human costs more severe. At the beginning of the 1918 the two sides were still in a situation of substantial equilibrium. So, in short, the resolution: between the 8 and the 11 August the Germans suffered the first serious defeat in the great battle of Amiens, on the western front; about two months later, after the disastrous retreat from Caporetto, the Italians launched an important counter-offensive on the Piave front and defeated the Austrians in the battle of Vittorio Veneto. These were no longer able to reorganize a resistance line due to the defection of the Czech and Hungarian departments; the November 3, the armistice was signed at Villa Giusti, near Padua; entered into force the following year.